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    Archive for the ‘BMI’ Category

    You Ask, I Answer: Body Mass Index

    bmi-comparisonHow accurate is the Body Mass Index?

    Mine is on the very highest edge of the “normal” spectrum, but just from looking at myself I can tell that I am not close to being overweight.

    — Corey Clark
    (Location Unknown)

    Body Mass Index (BMI) is a popularly used calculation based on height and weight that provides an estimate for an individual’s percentage of body fat.

    If interested, you can easily calculate your BMI online.

    The results are then interpreted in the following way:

    • < 18.5 = Underweight
    • 18.5 – 24.9 = Healthy weight
    • 25.0 – 29.9 = Overweight
    • 30.0 – 34.9 = Obesity (Class 1)
    • 35.0 – 39.9 = Obesity (Class 2)
    • >40.0 = Hyper Obesity

    Although BMI is usually accurate, it has its drawbacks.

    The main one?  Height and weight alone leave out important information.

    As the accompanying illustration (property of HowStuffWorks.com) shows, a muscular athlete may have the same BMI as a sedentary individual with a high amount of adipose tissue.  While both may classify as overweight according to BMI, the sedentary individual is at a much higher risk for developing certain diseases (including heart disease and cancer) than the muscular athlete.

    This is why, except in the case of high obesity, most nutrition professionals like to compound BMI calculation with waist circumference measurements.

    Scientific research has found an undeniable link between waist circumference and disease risk.

    In that case, here are the values to keep in mind:

    • In women, waist circumference of 30 inches or less is deemed healthy.  31 – 35 inches points to an increased disease risk, while measurements over 35 point to high disease risk.
    • In the case of men, waist circumference should be at 36 inches or below.  Measurements between 37 and 40 inches indicate increase disease risk.  Any values over 40 indicate high disease risk.

    For example, a muscular male athlete may have a BMI of 28 (considered ‘overweight’) but a waist circumference of 32.

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    Speaking With…: Brian Wansink

    This past Friday, Cornell University John Dyson Professor of Consumer Behavior and director of the Cornell Food and Brand Laboratory Dr. Brian Wansink stopped by New York University after being tapped as the second featured speaker of a new lecture series on nutrition and chronic disease.

    Taking off from his bestseller Mindless Eating, the talk was appropriately titled, “How To Turn Mindless Eating Into Healthy Eating.”

    With those prevously mentioned credentials, you might picture a stiff, “all business” type who solves complex equations in his head while half-listening to you.

    Dr. Wansink, however, is reminiscent of the cool high school math teacher who wanted you to learn — and have fun while doing so. His research explanations are peppered with personal anecdotes, comedy, and facial expressions that sometimes rival those of Jim Carrey.

    A few hours before his afternoon presentation, I sat down with Dr. Wansink for a one-on-one interview.

    If you are unfamiliar with Dr. Wansink’s work, please click here to familiarize yourself with his research before reading the interview.

    I get such a kick out of all your publicity shots for Mindless Eating [NOTE: see accompanying picture]. They’re great! Have they all been photographers’ ideas?

    Ha! Thanks. Yeah, I’ve had some really creative photographers who set up these elaborate shoots. Some of those popcorn shots literally took twelve hours, from setup to cleanup. There was a LOT of popcorn all over the floor at the end that had to be cleaned up (laughs).

    So, I recently read that all of this research started as a result of you wanting people in the United States to eat more vegetables.

    That’s right.

    How did you go from that to your current line of research?

    Yeah, before I started my dissertation [in the late 80s], I wanted to know: “why do you finish your vegetables sometimes and other times you leave them on your plate?”. “Why are you hungry for them one night and not the next?” That then evolved into the idea of environmental factors that affect our overall eating patterns. It’s a lot more complex than people think because so many of our eating behaviors are automatic. This is all about getting below that surface. One of my first research studies had to do with family serving behavior. We had people come in, eat, and then answer questions about what they ate.

    Then, we showed them video footage of their meal. It is amazing how many people flat out deny, or are not aware of, their eating behavior. You’ll say to someone, “you had three servings of peas.” They’ll tell you, “No, I only had one!” You feel like saying, “Well, unless you have an evil twin…”

    It’s not until you show them the videotape that they change their mind. I once had a woman cry when she saw herself eating on camera! My research considers three angles. Not only what people are eating and how much of it, but also with what frequency.

    How did all that research turn into Mindless Eating?

    In 2004, I was in France and thought to myself, “I’d like to write a book, but I don’t know if I want it to be academic or pop.”

    That year, Bonnie Liebman of the Center for Science in the Public Interest interviewed me for their Nutrition Action newsletter, and suddenly a lot of requests for book deal started coming in. Most of them were e-mails and, I don’t know, nothing really stood out. Then I got a letter — an actual letter! — from Bantam Dell Books. One of the things I liked about them is that, as they told me, they are in the business of creating “real books that people read.”

    Interesting you say that, because I think that’s definitely one of the factors behind the popularity of Mindless Eating. It is relatable for and interesting to the average consumer.

    So at this point, it’s been a few years since the book came out. I was wondering about recent developments. For example, have you conducted any research on the effects of calorie postings in fast food restaurants?

    Oh yeah, I was involved in a VERY well-done study with Carnegie Mellon in regards to calorie labeling. We looked at McDonald’s, Subway, and Starbucks in terms of what consumers were buying before and after calories went up. And, you know what? The results were indeterminate. They were all over the board. Some people consumed fewer calories, others didn’t. I would actually be suspicious of anyone who told you they have seen a dramatic effect as a result of calorie labeling.

    That strikes me as really odd. What are your theories regarding the results of that study?

    There’s a few things to consider. First of all, when it comes to weight loss, a lot of people think: Yeah, I wouldn’t mind losing ten pounds, but I don’t want to change a thing.” Then there’s reactance, which is a psychological term. It’s basically resistance. Reactance is at play when you’re in your car and the person behind you honks so you pull away more slowly than you would otherwise.

    (Laughs) Or when you know someone at a restaurant is waiting for your table, so you sit there and take a little longer.

    Yeah. So I think, in a way, some people are seeing these calories and thinking, “Oh yeah? Well, you’re not going to tell ME what to eat!” Something similar happened in a study I did with Cornell. So, Cornell has a huge dining hall that services about 1100 people at one time. I wanted to see what effect going tray-less would have. I thought it would have two positive effects — it would result in reduced waste and reduced calories.

    The idea being that people couldn’t pile everything on at once but instead had to get up from their table each time they wanted more food?

    Yeah, exactly. Well, the results came in, and that night there was roughly 30 percent MORE plate waste! I think it comes back to that idea of reactance, where people saw this and thought, “Fine, I won’t use a tray, but I’m not going to eat less.” “font-style:italic;”>But that’s not to say that I think calorie labeling isn’t useful. Let me tell you something. The other day I went to Sbarro and saw that the slice of pizza I wanted was 787 calories. Aaaaaaaah!! So I think these calorie postings are going to serve as incentives for these food companies to say, “Alright, wait a minute, I want to turn that 787 into 690.” I think it’s going to nudge companies to drop the numbers, and that’s what will, in turn, affect consumers.

    Speaking of consumers, you recently finished your one-year post with the United States Department of Agriculture’s Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion working on the Dietary Gudelines. How did that go?

    Oh, it was great! I thought I was on a mission from God! My last day was January 20, when the new president took office. I was literally sending e-mails at 11:59 PM on January 19. I was still e-mailing at 12:05 AM on January 20, and I remember thinking “Wow, they didn’t shut off my inbox!” Then I got up to grab something to eat, and about ten minutes later I came back and I no longer had access.

    Any sneak peeks as to possible changes we may expect in the next round of Dietary Guidelines?

    I was involved with the selection of the 13 Dietary Guidelines committee members, and 11 of them have a behavioral focus. They operate where the rubber meets the road. That’s important, because they take pages upon pages of data and transform it into information for the masses that can be summarized in just a few sentences.

    So to wrap up, I’m interested in hearing about research you are in the process of conducting now.

    Oh yeah, sure. Well, we’re looking at what happens to people’s eating behaviors when they sit next to someone who has a much higher BMI than they do. We are also doing a study where we have someone wearing a fat suit and going through one side of a buffet very slowly, serving themselves a lot of food. Everyone on the other side of the salad bar takes a much lower amount of food compared to when that person is going through the salad bar without the fat suit on. It’s the whole concept of mimicking the attractive person. It’s terrible, because weight is the last acceptable prejudice in our society and it can really be crippling to a person’s self-esteem.

    Lately, the concept of “nature vs. nurture” has become central to the issue of childhood obesity. Do you have any thoughts on that from a behavioral standpoint?

    Well, we conducted a study with 4 year olds. We gave all the kids a questionnaire to take home. The point of the questionnaire was to determine to what extent parents forced their kids to eat everything that was on their plate. Of course, we disguised those questions among lots of filler like “what is your favorite TV show?”

    “What color are your curtains?”, etc.

    (Laughs) Exactly. So the parents, on a scale of one to nine, had to rate just how heavily they enforced “the clean plate club” at home. So, you know, nine was “my kids HAVE to finish everything on their plate or there is some kind of consequence” and one was “Ah, if they eat, they eat. If they don’t, they don’t.” We discovered that the children whose parents insisted they finish everything on their plate served themselves approximately 40 percent more cereal in our study.

    Wow! And based on what you talk about in Mindless Eating… the idea that, once food is in front of us, it is very easy to eat it all, that’s a significant finding.

    Yeah, the thinking is that children who are forced to clean their plate feel like the have no control when it comes to food, so they find ways to reassert their control and independence.

    Well, it looks like we’ve actually gone over time, but this has been fascinating. It’s been a pleasure speaking with you. Thank you!

    Oh, absolutely. Thank you and best of luck with everything.

    Many thanks to Dr. Wansink for his time!

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    Numbers Game: Answer

    The world renowned Framingham study concluded that a 2 point decrease in BMI reduces the risk of developing osteoarthritis (a loss of cartilage) in the knee by approximately 50 percent.

    (NOTE: Using a 5 foot, 10 inch tall man weighing 190 pounds as an example, a 2 point decrease in BMI is achieved by losing 10 pounds.)

    According to World Health Organization statistics, osteoarthritis is the fourth leading cause of disability in the world.

    The research literature clearly identifies obesity as the most influential factor in the development — and subsequent progression — of this condition.

    One of the more problematic aspects of osteoarthritis is that it makes implementation of most sorts of physical activity and movement significantly challenging, thereby adding more difficulty to weight loss efforts.

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    Numbers Game: A Load Off Your Knees

    The world renowned Framingham study concluded that a 2 point decrease in BMI reduced the risk of developing osteoarthritis (a loss of cartilage) in the knee by approximately ______ percent.

    (NOTE: Using a 5 foot, 10 inch tall man weighing 190 pounds as an example, a 2 point decrease in BMI is achieved by losing 10 pounds.)

    a) 27
    b) 50
    c) 16
    d) 38

    Leave your guess in the “comments” section and come back on Thursday for the answer.

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    Survey Results: Top of the Morning

    The latest Small Bites survey reveals that 90% of respondents eat breakfast every day, 8% do so occassionally, and 1% never do.

    Although it is pretty much an established fact that breakfast-skipping children’s cognitive thinking is inferior to that of their classmates who eat prior to the beginning of the school day, dietitians don’t all agree on the importance of this meal for the 18 and over crowd.

    I plant myself in the “eating breakfast every day is a good thing” camp.

    No, scratch that — eating a healthy breakfast every day is a good thing.

    One advantage to eating breakfast is that it is the easiest meal to make high in fiber.

    Consider the options: high-fiber/whole-grain/low-sugar cereals, oatmeal, whole or sprouted grain toast, fruit-walnut-ground flaxseed parfaits, whole grain waffles, and more!

    Breakfast is also a great opportunity to get a good deal of calcium, whether it’s milk (dairy or soy) in your latte or cereal, or simply enjoying a bowl of yogurt (again, dairy or soy both do the trick).

    Many people think skipping breakfast is a smart calorie-cutting strategy. Wrong. Insert Family Feud “your answer is not on the board” buzzer sound HERE.

    Here’s the problem. Say you wake up at 7 AM and decide to cut calories by going straight to work with nothing but a Diet Snapple in your belly.

    By the time lunchtime rolls around, you will very likely be ravenous.

    Not surprisingly, we do not make the smartest nutrition choices when we have to eat. RIGHT. NOW.

    This being said, breakfast is not the magic bullet.

    I agree with Marion Nestle who, in her book What To Eat, writes, “what you eat — and how much — matters more to your health than when you eat.”

    Chomping down on two Pop-Tarts every day, or sipping a Venti caramel Frappuccino, does not constitute a nutritious breakfast. It simply adds extra empty calories… who wants those?

    Similarly, starting your day with a caloric overload — think a 740 calorie Wendy’s breakfast burrito — is certainly not setting you on the right track for the rest of the day.

    Do you really want half of your recommended maxium sodium intake before noon?

    But what about the studies showing that breakfast eaters have lower BMIs?

    They make some interesting connections, although I can’t help but wonder if this is a case of those who eat breakfast every day simply being more health conscious and, therefore, keeping a more careful eye on their food consumption in general (thereby managing their weight better).

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    Numbers Game: Answer

    According to 2006 figures released by food service juggernaut Aramark, the average adult in the United States has a Body Mass Index of 29.

    (Note: A healthy BMI ranges from 18.5 to 25. ‘Overweight’ is characterized as 25 – 30, and obese is marked by a BMI of 30 or more).

    As I have mentioned in the past, BMI (essentially a weight: height ratio) is not the most accurate measurement of weight status when dealing with individuals.

    One limitation to this formula is that it does not differentiate between muscle and fat.

    Therefore, a bodybuilder will misleadingly have a BMI in the “obese” category.

    When looking at large populations, though, I find BMI to be an accurate barometer, particularly when we are talking about the average adult in this country being on the verge of clinical obesity.

    It is also worth pointing out that there is a clear upward trend.

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average adult in the United States had a BMI of 25 in 1960.

    I very, very highly doubt that the latest figure of 29 is due to more muscle mass, especially since this perfectly corelates to the increasing amount of calories consumed per capita in the past forty years.

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    Numbers Game: The Unhealthy States of America

    According to 2006 figures released by food service juggernaut Aramark, the average adult in the United States has a Body Mass Index of _____.

    (Note: A healthy BMI ranges from 18.5 to 25. ‘Overweight’ is characterized as 25 – 30, and obese is marked by a BMI of 30 or more).

    a) 23.5
    b) 27

    c) 29

    d) 31.5

    Leave your guess in the “comments” section and come back on Thursday for the answer!

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    Numbers Game: The Unhealthy States of America

    According to 2006 figures released by food service juggernaut Aramark, the average adult in the United States has a Body Mass Index of _____.

    (Note: A healthy BMI ranges from 18.5 to 25. ‘Overweight’ is characterized as 25 – 30, and obese is marked by a BMI of 30 or more).

    a) 23.5
    b) 27

    c) 29

    d) 31.5

    Leave your guess in the “comments” section and come back on Thursday for the answer!

    Share

    In The News: Overweight = Healthy?

    Want to create a web of confusion and misunderstandings? Allow the media to report on a controversial scientific study, sit back, and enjoy the ensuing hijinks.

    Today’s New York Times reports on a study published today in the Journal of the American Medical Association which concluded that overweight people have lower death rates than their obese, “normal weight”, and underweight counterparts.

    Some who studied the relation between weight and health said the nation might want to reconsider what are ideal weights,” reads one excerpt.

    Many media outlets are giving this a rather troubling spin, rhetorically asking if people should worry about losing those extra five or ten pounds.

    I have several concerns with this study.

    Firstly, the study used body-mass index rates to determine what category participants fell into. For those of you who aren’t familiar with it, BMI is a number acquired by inputting your weight and height into a formula. A BMI between 25 and 29.9, for instance, is considered “overweight”.

    One very limiting factor of this calculation is that fat and muscle mass are seen as equals. So, a sedentary 5’7″ male with little muscle tone weighing 180 pounds has the same BMI as a muscular, athletic male of the same height and weight.

    However, these two men have very different health profiles. The sedentary male has a higher risk of developing diabetes, high blood pressure, and atherosclerosis than his muscular counterpart.

    For all we know, the “overweight” people (with high BMIs) in this study were athletic people with high muscle mass levels.

    Additionally, I hope it is not news to anyone that being underweight is not healthy. Falling below your ideal weight compromises your immune system, raises your risk of osteoporosis, and is linked to low consumption of vital nutrients.

    Lastly, this article exemplifies why it is problematic to equate our weight with our health. There are many people who do not consume excessive calories (and, therefore, do not gain weight), but do not make nutritious choices.

    It is certainly possible for someone to fall into the “normal weight” category while shunning fruits, vegetables, and whole grain and not gain weight. Meanwhile, an athletic person with healthy eating patterns can be considered “overweight”.

    Let’s not complicate matters further. If you are sedentary, ten pounds overweight and eat mostly processed foods, do not kid yourself into believing that you are healthier than your friend who eats healthy and is at a “normal weight”.

    Extreme circumstances not withstanding, the WAY you eat is more important than what you WEIGH.

    Instead of obsessing over the scale, eat close to nature, limit processed foods, include a variety of fruits and vegetables in your diet, make most of your grains whole, and pay attention to portion sizes.

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